Closing the Gender Data Gap: The Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative

Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women’s Health in Neuroscience Research

Neuroscience has made significant strides in understanding the human brain, thanks to advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, a concerning disparity exists when it comes to studying women’s health factors in this field. Less than 0.5% of the over 50,000 human-brain-imaging articles published since the of MRI in the 1990s consider health factors specific to women. This oversight is particularly troubling given that conditions such as Alzheimer’s and depression disproportionately affect women. To bridge this gap, the University of California (UC) has launched the Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative, a groundbreaking brain-imaging consortium aimed at closing the gender data gap and making neuroscience more inclusive.

The Neglected Study of Women’s Health

Despite women’s health being a significant area of concern, it remains understudied and underfunded. Women make up 70% of individuals with Alzheimer’s and 65% of those with depression. Moreover, certain neurological conditions, including postpartum depression and menstrual migraines, are unique to individuals who menstruate. Surprisingly, there has been no comprehensive neuroimaging study on the long-term effects of hormone suppression on the brain, despite millions of women worldwide using hormonal contraception. The lack of research in this area highlights the need for a shift in the scientific community’s approach to studying women’s health.

The Gender Disparity in Neuroscience Research

One of the contributing factors to the underrepresentation of women’s health in neuroscience research is the lack of focus from researchers and funders. Although women make up approximately 50% of participants in neuroimaging studies, researchers often overlook health factors specific to women. This bias is not entirely surprising, considering that 80% of tenured neuroscientists are men. This gender disparity in the field further perpetuates the neglect of women’s health in neuroscience.

The Birth of the Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative

Recognizing the urgent need to address the gender data gap in neuroscience, the University of California launched the Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative on November 16th. This brain-imaging consortium aims to close the gender data gap and foster inclusivity in neuroscience research. Led by Emily G. Jacobs, the initiative brings together seven members of the UC system, with more expected to join. Leveraging the diversity and scale of the UC campuses, the initiative collects MRI data from thousands of women each year.

Embracing Big Data for Women’s Brain Health

The Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative takes a novel approach to neuroscience research by embracing a consortium model and harnessing the power of big data. By pooling MRI data and health metrics from multiple sites, the initiative aims to establish population-level tendencies regarding women’s brain health. Machine-learning tools will analyze this vast dataset, linking health factors such as hormonal contraceptive use, menstrual migraines, perinatal birth complications, and menopausal symptoms with MRI data. This approach will provide valuable insights into the impact of hormonal transitions on the brain.

Precision Imaging and Hormonal Transitions

The project also focuses on precision imaging studies that track individuals intensively over time. This approach has already revolutionized our understanding of the brain’s dynamic properties. In the context of women’s brain health, precision imaging techniques have begun to uncover how the brain changes structurally and functionally across the menstrual cycle. By applying this lens to other major hormonal transitions, such as pregnancy and menopause, researchers hope to gain insights into early indicators of conditions like depression during pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. This knowledge could lead to improved clinical care and early interventions.

Inclusivity and the Future of Women’s Brain Health

The Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative recognizes the importance of inclusivity beyond the binary gender divide. The initiative actively includes trans and non-binary individuals, acknowledging the lack of data on this population. By studying the effects of hormone replacement therapy and gender-affirming care on brain function and subjective experience, the initiative aims to improve clinical care and enhance the lives of all individuals.


The launch of the Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative marks a significant step towards closing the gender data gap in neuroscience research. By prioritizing women’s health factors and embracing big data, this consortium aims to unravel the complexities of conditions such as depression and shed light on the effects of hormonal transitions on the brain. The initiative’s inclusive approach, encompassing trans and non-binary individuals, further emphasizes the importance of valuing the health of people of all genders equally. Through the Ann S. Bowers Women’s Brain Health Initiative, neuroscience has the potential to make groundbreaking discoveries and improve clinical care for all.






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